It is a process of enlarging people's choices and capabilities to lead a better life based on standard of living, literacy etc. In contemporary theories human development is measured in alignment with gross national product to evaluate overall development of society. The various indices of human development are life expectancy, literacy rate, birth rate, death rate, and infant mortality rate. Life expectancy is the expected number of years of life that are remaining at a given age. It is represented by average number of years of life remaining at given age. It is measured on the basis of mortality experience.
Literacy is the ability to read and write having further knowledge, thinking critically and logically. Literacy makes the society rational and leads to development. Birth rate is total number of births per 1000 of population. Fertility rates, registration system for births, census etc. are various measures to calculate birth rate. Units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year represent death rate or mortality rate. Infant mortality rate is a rate defined as death of the child less than one year of age. In India infant mortality rate affects society as it influences social and human capital.