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A leader is someone who influences others. Instrumental leaders try to keep a group moving toward its goals, even though this causes friction and they lose popularity. Expressive leaders focus on creating harmony and raising group morale. Both types are essential to the functioning of groups.

Authoritarian leaders give orders, democratic leaders try to lead by consensus, and laissez-faire leaders are highly permissive. An authoritarian style appears to be more effective in emergency situations, a democratic style works best for most situations, and a laissez-faire style is usually ineffective.

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